The Prophet’s (PBUH) Hajj
The ritual of Hajj became compulsory in 9 A.H. In that year, the Muslims performed Hajj under the leadership of Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him), who was appointed by the Prophet (peace and salutations be upon him). The following year, in Dhul Qa`dah 10 A.H, the Prophet intended to personally perform the pilgrimage of Hajj. This was his first and last Hajj. This Hajj is known as Hajjatul Islam (.as it was his only Hajj after migration), Hajjatul Balagha (as he demonstrated all rites and issues relating to Hajj both verbally and physically) and also Hajjatul Wada` / the Farewell Pilgrimage (since it was his last Hajj in which he bade farewell to his ummah).
The Prophet (peace and salutations be upon him) combed his hair, applied fragrance, wore his garments, saddled his camel and left Madinah, after delivering a speech on the rulings of ihram and leading the zuhr salah, on Saturday afternoon (between the zuhr and `asr salah) 25th Dhul Qa`dah, 10 A.H. He was accompanied by an assembly of 90, 000 to 114, 000 or even more loyal Muslims including all his wives and his daughter, Fatimah (may Allah be pleased with her). Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) was going to join the Prophet later in Makkah (since he was sent to Yemen in the month of Ramadhan).
The Prophet (PBUH) reached Dhul Hulaifah before `asr salah. He observed two rak`ah and spent the night here. The following morning before the zuhr salah, he bathed, applied oil and `Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) perfumed him with her hand on his body and head with a perfume containing musk and a plant called Dharira. The thick sticky layer of perfume was still visible in his hair and beard which he left unwashed. The Prophet then wore his upper and lower wrappers and performed the shortened zuhr salah. He thereafter proclaimed the talbiyah and mounted his she-camel.
He travelled for eight consecutive days until he reached Dhi Tuwa where he spent the entire night and, in the morning, observed the fajr salah and had a bath there. He (PBUH) then entered Makkah riding on his camel from the upper region on Sunday morning 4th Dhul Hijjah. He proceeded to the Masjid al-Haram where he performed the religious ritual of tawaf [of al-Ka`bah] and sa`i [between the two mountains]. He camped in Makkah for the next four days on a high place known as al-Hajun.
Day 1 – 8th of Dhul Hijjah
The Prophet (PBUH) proceeded to Mina on Thursday 8th Dhul Hijjah where he performed the zuhr, `asr, maghrib, `isha and the next day`s (9th) fajr salah.
Day 2 – 9th of Dhul Hijjah
Thereafter, a while after the sun rose, he advanced to `Arafah and sat till the sun declined inside a tent pitched for him at Namirah [in `Arafah]. He thereafter rode on al-Qaswa, his she-camel, and descended the valley where 100, 024 or 100, 044 people assembled for him. There, the Prophet (PBUH) commented on some important messages in his sermon whilst mounted on his camel:
Violating the life and property of one another – “It is unlawful for you to shed the blood of one another and [unlawfully] take the fortunes of one another”
Practices of the days of ignorance – “Behold, all practices of pre-Islamic era of ignorance are crushed beneath my feet. The blood-revenge of the pre-Islamic era is remitted.”
Usury – “Usury is forbidden”
Women – “Fear Allah concerning women. Verily you have taken them on the security of Allah … It is incumbent upon you to clothe and feed them suitably.”
Guidance – “Verily, I have left amongst you the Book of Allah and the traditions of His Messenger which if you hold firmly, you will never go astray.”
Seal of the Prophets – “I am not succeeded by a Prophet and you are not succeeded by any nation”
Pillars of Islam – “Behold, worship your Lord, observe your five [daily] salah (prayers), fast during the month [of Ramadan], offer the zakah (alms) of your wealth willingly, and perform the pilgrimage to the House of your Lord.”
Last Verse of the Qur`an
The Prophet had accomplished rendering this sermon and was engaged in worship when the following verse [5: 3] from the Quran was revealed, “Today I have perfected for you your religion, I have completed upon you My favour, and I have chosen for you Islam as [your] religion.”
Bilal (may Allah be pleased with him) called out the adhan and the Prophet (PBUH) then observed both the zuhr and `asr salah together at one time [of zuhr], with no salah in between. The Prophet then rode to the great mountain and remained standing, facing the qiblah, in praising and thanking Allah and invoking His mercy and forgiveness till sunset after which he advanced, with Usama bin Zaid (may Allah be pleased with him) sitting behind him, towards Muzdalifah.
Day 3 – 10th of Dhul Hijjah
The Prophet (PBUH) observed the maghrib and `isha salah together here [at the time of `isha]. Then he lied down till it was the time of dawn. When dawn was spread well, he prayed Fajr salah [early at the beginning time] and went to al-mash`ar al-haram in Mina and remained there in worship (i.e. takbeer, tahlil and tahmid) until it was clear morning. He then proceeded back quickly, with Fadhl ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) as his co-rider, to Mina just before sunrise. He pelted seven pebbles at the big jamarah at forenoon (duha) while on camel-back.
During the high time morning, the Prophet (BUH) then delivered another sermon similar to the one which he delivered the day before at `Arafah. Some additional messages included:
Sanctity of the life, property and honour of one another – “Your lives, wealth and honour are all inviolable. They are sacred to each other just as the sacredness of this day, in this sacred town, in this sacred month” [and thus it is unlawful to violate their sacredness by spilling innocent blood, seizing the property of others unjustly and humiliating their honour].
Propagation – “Let him that is present covey it (i.e. my message) unto him who is absent. For haply, to whom the message is conveyed may be more mindful [and understanding of the message] than the one listening [directly].”
Injustice – “He whoever plunges into misfortune will surely aggrieve himself. Let no parent inflict an evil upon his child and no child upon his parent.”
He (PBUH) then left for the sacrificial place where he slaughtered 63 camels with his own hands and asked `Ali (RA) to slaughter the remaining 37 or 51 camels on his behalf. The Prophet (PBUH) commanded for a piece of each animal to be cooked and they both ate the meat and drank the gravy. After this, he had his hair shaved (which was then distributed amongst the companions) and he applied scent. He thereafter rode on his animal to Makkah, performed the tawaf [al-ifadhah], observed his zuhr salah, drank from the zamzam water, and returned to Mina that very day and spent the night in Mina.
Day 4-6 –11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul Hijjah
The Prophet (PBUH) then spent the 11th to the 13th Dhul Hijjah in Mina, pelting stones at the jamarah after zawal, worshiping his Lord and delivering speeches. The Prophet (PBUH) left Mina on Tuesday 13th Dhul Hijjah and, after some time at a place called muhassab at the outskirts of Makkah, he set off towards Makkah and performed the farewell tawaf [al-wada] before daybreak. He then left Makkah without any delay from the lower region.
During his journey back to Madinah, the Prophet (PBUH) had delivered another sermon at a place between Makkah and Madinah, called Ghadir Khum, in which he made reference to his imminent departure from this world and he emphasised the importance of having love for his family and `Ali (RA).
The Prophet (PBUH) reached Madinah at the end of Dhul Hijjah and lived in this world for just more than two months after that (i.e his return from Hajj). Inna Lillaahi Wa Inna Ilayhi Raji`oon.
May Allah Ta`ala send abundant, continous and infinite blessings, mercy and salutations upon the best creation of Allah, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Ameen
The Ask Our Imam site hopes to respond to queries relating to Islamic law. It is not an Islamic Law Shari`ah Court. The questions and answers found on this website are for educational purposes. However, many of the rulings rendered here are distinct to the specific scenario and thus should be read in conjunction with the question and not taken as a basis to establish a verdict in another situation or environment. This site bears no responsibility in these responses being used out of their intended context, nor to any party who may or may not follow the responses given and is being hereby exempted from loss or damage howsoever caused. None of the responses rendered may be used as evidence in any Court of Law without prior written consent of Our Imam. Any reference to another website or link provided in our responses or article should not be taken as an endorsement of all the content on that website; in fact, it is restricted to the particular material being cited.
Posted in General on 1st Sep 2016 by Our Imam | 1059 Views