Ahadith on Shām
What are the Ahadith regarding the virtue of the people and place of as-Shām?
Asalaam alaikum dear imam. What is the hadith narration where the Rasul said the best of places and best of His servants will be gathered in sham. And the narration where the Rasul told his companion to migrate to sham because it is best of places that only Allah Almighty will bring His special servants to that land.
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.
At the outset, we must note that Shām refers to The Levant, which today consists of Cyprus, Lebanon, Syria, (pre-1947) Palestine, Jordan, part of southern Turkey, and the Aleppo Vilayet.
Consider the following narrations in reference to your Hadith query on Shām:
- It is reported in Sunan Abī Dawūd  that:
عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ: سَتَكُونُ هِجْرَةٌ بَعْدَ هِجْرَةٍ، فَخِيَارُ أَهْلِ الْأَرْضِ أَلْزَمُهُمْ مُهَاجَرَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، وَيَبْقَى فِي الْأَرْضِ شِرَارُ أَهْلِهَا تَلْفِظُهُمْ أَرْضُوهُمْ، تَقْذَرُهُمْ نَفْسُ اللَّهِ، وَتَحْشُرُهُمُ النَّارُ مَعَ الْقِرَدَةِ وَالْخَنَازِيرِ»
Translation: ‘Abdullāh Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates that I heard Allah`s Messenger (peace and salutations be upon him) saying, “There shall be constant emigrations (in the near future). The best of the people will be those who hold fast to the place of emigration of Ibrahim (peace be upon him) (i.e. Shām). The worst of the earth’s people will remain, cast out by their lands, abhorred by Allāh and the fire will gather them with the apes and swines.”
- It is reported in Sunan al-Tirmidhi  and Musnad al-Imam Ahmad [4567 and others] that:
عَنْ سَالِمِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: سَتَخْرُجُ نَارٌ مِنْ حَضْرَمَوْتَ أَوْ مِنْ نَحْوِ بَحْرِ حَضْرَمَوْتَ قَبْلَ يَوْمِ القِيَامَةِ تَحْشُرُ النَّاسَ قَالُوا: يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ، فَمَا تَأْمُرُنَا؟ قَالَ: عَلَيْكُمْ بِالشَّامِ.
Translation: ‘Abdullāh Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates that Allah`s Messenger (peace and salutations be upon him) said, “Such a fire will emerge from Hadhramaut (a place in Yemen) before Qiyāmah which will gather the people.’ The people asked, ‘O Allah`s Messenger (peace and salutations be upon him), What do you advise us to do (if we are faced with it)?’ He replied, ‘Take refuge in Shām.’”
- It is reported also in Sunan al-Tirmidhi  and Musnad al-Imam Ahmad  that:
عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ، قَالَ: كُنَّا عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ نُؤَلِّفُ القُرْآنَ مِنَ الرِّقَاعِ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: طُوبَى لِلشَّامِ، فَقُلْنَا: لأَيٍّ ذَلِكَ يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ؟ قَالَ: لأَنَّ مَلاَئِكَةَ الرَّحْمَنِ بَاسِطَةٌ أَجْنِحَتَهَا عَلَيْهَا.
Translation: Zaid Ibn Thābit (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates, “We were with Allah`s Messenger (peace and salutations be upon him) compiling the Qur’ān from pieces of cloth, when Allah`s Messenger (peace and salutations be upon him) said: ‘Glad tidings be for Shām.’ We asked, ‘Why is that so O Allah`s Messenger (peace and salutations be upon him)?’ He replied, ‘This is because the angels of Allāh have spread their (protective) wings over it (Shām).’”
- It is reported in Sunan Abi Dawūd  and in Musnad al-Imam Ahmad [23618/ 21276 with slight variance in wording but a sound chain] that:
عن ابن حوالة قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: سيصير الأمر إلى أن تكونوا جنودا ًمجندة جند بالشام وجند باليمن وجند بالعراق. قال ابن حوالة خر لي يا رسول الله، إن أدركت ذلك، فقال: عليك بالشام فإنها خيرة الله من أرضه يجتبي إليها خيرته من عباده فأما إن أبيتم فعليكم بيمنكم واسقوا من غدركم فإن الله توكل لي بالشام وأهله.
Translation: Ibn Hawālah al-Azdī (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates that Allah`s Messenger (peace and salutations be upon him) said, “The matter will run their course until you become three armies: an army in Sham, an army in Yemen, and an army in Iraq”. Ibn Hawālah (may Allah be pleased with him) said, “Choose for me, O Allah`s Messenger, in case I live to see that “. He (peace and salutations be upon him) responded, “Go to Shām, for it is the best of lands of Allah, and the best of His slaves will be drawn there. And if you refuse, then go to Yemen and drink from its wells. For Allah has guaranteed me that He will look after Sham and its people.”
And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best
Hanif Yusuf Patel
Student Darul Iftaa
Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.
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